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Sabtu, 12 Mei 2012

Tumbuhan Gymnospermae

Pengertian Tumbuhan Berbiji Terbuka (Gymnospermae)

Secara harfiah Gymnospermae berarti gym = telanjang dan spermae = tumbuhan yang menghasilkan biji. Jadi, Gymnospermae3 adalah tumbuhan yang memiliki biji terbuka.
Tumbuhan Gymnospermae memiliki akar, batang, dan daun yang jelas. Akarnya merupakan akar tunggang. Pada akar tidak tampak pembatas yang jelas antara kaliptra dan ujung akar. Akar Gymnospermae juga dapat mengalami pertumbuhan menjadi semakin membesar karena memiliki kambium.
Daun Gymnospermae berbentuk pipih, lebar, dan lancip seperti jarum. Daun Gymnospermae yang pipih dan lebar, mengalami diferensiasi sehingga memiliki epidermis, mesofil, dan tulang daun. Contoh Gymnospermae adalah Cycas revoluta, Ginkgo biloba, Pinus, Sequoia, Welwitschia mirabilis, dan Gnetum gnemon.
Gymnospermae bereproduksi secara seksual. Gymnospermae belum memiliki bunga sesungguhnya. Bakal bijinya terletak pada daun buah atau makrosporofil yang disebut strobilus betina. Serbuk sari terletak pada mikrosporofil. Mikrosoporofil itu sendiri, terletak pada bagian yang disebut strobilus jantan. Gymnospermae memiliki daur hidup yang mirip dengan paku heterospora

Tumbuhan kelompok Gymnospermae mempunyai ciri, yaitu :
1.Bakal biji tidak terlindungi oleh daun buah.
2.Berakar tunggang.
3.Umumnya berupa pohon.
4.Mempunyai akar, batang, dan daun sejati.
Para ahli biologi menggolongkan Gymnospermae menjadi beberapa ordo dan divisio, yaitu :
1.Cycadales divisio Cycadophyta, contoh pakis haji (Cycas rumphii)
2.Ginkgoales divisio Ginkgophyta, contoh Ginkgo biloba
3.Coniferales divisio Pinophyta, contoh pinus, cemara, dan dammar
4.Gnetales divisio Gnetophyta, contoh melinjo (Gnetum gnemon)
 
 
Klasifikasi Gymnospermae :  


1.
Ordo Cycadale Divisio Cycadophyta
Tumbuhan yang termasuk dari Cycadales adalah pakis haji. Pakis haji berbentuk seperti kelapa sawit dan sering digunakan untuk tanaman hias. Jenis ini dapat ditemukan di daerah tropis dan subtropis. contoh :
Pakis Haji
 
Daun dan runjung jantan Cycas revoluta 

Kingdom                      : Plantae (tumbuhan)
Subkingdom                 : Tracheobionta (berpembuluh)
Superdivisio                  : Spermatophyta (menghasilkan biji)
Divisio                          : Cycadophyta (sikad)
Kelas                           : Cycadopsida
Ordo                            : Cycadales
Familia                         : Cycadaceae
Genus                           : Cycas
Spesies                         : Cycas rumphii Miq

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WDOIXpQHB0Tyfl6tYQ3wyBKlLmHukulBUS7EOpXDwEAMLrjkk9UO1x2T7d2nLQiZNBUVTHTLDN3QW93zE9RrFFRiQC63JUakKHI6PqXaJtrbTVMU76MODVpyLN5CI8FgSsgcDy1+pjuilCCslTkzOEw61lrvyHEa6WEWDC7NEsB2egc2Tbje8FS0Jw6aXCanhmHFr9OfWFHYLxMwZS0scjoS5LjXlyFWiFvI7fRSUfT15MoVOnTckvUjvODwZzVhypD/B7Kk4dOeYUzJgKalQZAdyWFyQzC130gcY9GGlGWgd4i4ajoY18zTnCuRJmzlBEsFRUaJDk+xvFJOtITvrsbbS3tWUsC9xRmFWAGpATQeZ1itGUpbqWWB41JLvbrF2lfD6bLAVOKJbkVW6v9qX94L2du7hEDtJqlTlCyWypIBtSpvaj1D0iUvqHy47sZR92VzYm7s6d/kpZOqvuVGjRd9g/ChBSlcxQUCHDG7+UWHC4xACCl8gFEhDBwKAAMNeH3g+TvAlI7ykpA4qH5xf6eEMlun++igRszdiVJbKLWADD8z5w2ywmTvdhiWEwG9Ran9Robs8Rf+ZSiTlCiAWJCaPwqz+XrHeoRa0C6HwIP5QPjMImakpUl/twbn0j03EZUkqegezkCEeM3oQ1C6QHzA089UdT3eekdDaXYCm7X2d/DzsqgpF2WkUWCXZQqnQaaecVbHLyqNAl60qPez6+fSL7j98Dlzy1ZsrZs1BVTd9Cvlv3xlYtWrQvxe+aMzTsJJIarAOeqSARXnHJk+GibopCcdMSQQs0Zu67Np++PCkHytqpZlAMDYlwpJuniKsQNC/GHp2zsucrIrDZCfwkJ9FFTeoEemblYWd/+ri8pLjLMYa2e/tEKn+V8A4p9MB2Nh8FNUoTElL1BlqNgAfCQa6t187Cr4WYaaAZOILkUcA/SKjtXcvGyA5QVpHzSmV+ZEQ7J3qnSVhyoMbhgQbOQGB5iMo4upRpjcpR0w3bfwvxMoEpSJiRqip/9b+0UrF4FSDUEGo+0do2F8QUTkNPZNnUHZnZy3As/90V3efcqb3p0hSZqVd7KlLUrb5TXTxdYWeHiuWN38DakjmGcpCi/EAfp/qb1grAmZJJmSyQopva5enJ0i8TfwySouGI4W9NOkQ4hejae3CJrJ7CVaLDtZsRITOl0UlKRMSB4DZNdXCQX1JgUDtJTs7gmpo4AzpFH1CvOFeztqqlrLsynCno4LgjgGenAtE0sAqIRUEuNK8B1H2hZxtm62iDFSKDN8vq35iE6s6Qw8Kv+7aHmIbLm95j68tPP8oUYiijmu/L7RbDa0N2N5EsZEZnLv9A0R4MEzHJpEuFIMoFnb7loxLnJQ6jbTXnQeUR3tDNdMboWlKMynNaJrQWcuGcsa6NA219vBfZy0gqTLSwJ1JNS3CE2KxRUSAe7Tzq4/fMxNIw5IhfSjHcjTly0jOHYsMoZ7VvzhtLnZUdxklr+dWpEUrZigMxZI4qIT9YKw+znALuAdASCWFHZnH5QknzejRjPwbyMKZqSD4QlyTwAf1ifE7QEpAlywxZgAHJNhmOl7dIhTOWpQlyRmLkBqtr0Up6uSw+nsJjcLhgpcwifOBICQQUhX9RbvBwa+H+5xDxxvjpWPSjoN2PufMnkTZgKJHzTDw1OlBxFBqaRcUbUwWBlkSpiM2YZVBiVpaxVUMS4o1raxzjau9+JxLZzUKdKUvllgAN3aC9awvkYCYoV4vXUjWvlA4VuTEckui1bT34E1gxyJBAAIoo6Jc0FnpTlaF+M3gUkJCAHr3nuSKEUowtQGpgBGx2YFQ939xxhkjYcrKFFZPID9IHKHK1tiJAY27OUO8pXhaii1TWnk3nEKcYrMFZXIdhcA1SGBswA5u5pD3D4KRUMogXct1MH4Wfg0lsqHbVXvForJJf7Da9xRu9mM1CSWd7h61YMSxDixpaOk7P2MteZlJQkN3ylK1KIDMlNgAKOw6awpw20NnpYLlpc9TfQMXPkDFt2RtrDhIEtgNBoON6k1js+nxyjfL+g2gTeOetHiKglViHbz4edOl4oG2ZS3OVyRVquQfmChcFm0robx1nEYdMxBSqx6U59Yqa/h0H7mJWK2yg9WrQcRD58cn0ZqzmolL/ApvMedr/WBcRhJpAfM1hmNquwew5WjqC/hqFeKeonjlr9Y0nfCiURWasf6QPvHB6Gfwv+/k3FHK5uEmK4HRswNODPEU0zwQRmcNXpaOmzvg4j5cQQeOX9YCnfB6aP8uegn/UPoIZYs0fAOCKjhd+MWgpBmLUlNA6lPydSSCeFfaD0b+SppyYvDpmVrMHdVlOhyhyoaHUhjeGcz4W45OsuZTVQ/wCTGF+J+G2NFThn5oUn6BRinLL/AOkxuL8M9N2dg197CYwy1Et2U6jm7BYBSbWg2TvDjMIkdtLeW4ZSPCQC5DjumwcODCCduPiUhQOHnsf/AI1G1i4HOApRxuEIUgrQx+ZJAIsygoAKFBQuIMWr8o1MteKkYfF9rOlEpUQFlASG+cqergjui1c0KNs7umQElRDLCSkuGOYApDixI0MAjbctawufIUDQ55BCSnj3AAhdeh4mGuz53aJWmTPlLYkdnOaXMKCymAmOgpzKVQFLF61ELLDGW138BVIqGMwpSYxKnqR4Xe/0/flDOemZ2ikiUrKm6VqTmSz+AkuoMOcDS5aFEkHMbNYp4uPKEdx1IHG+jGIOcBYAZy/4uZ/qD63HSF+0Egl/caaVg5U6Uk0c1N21o1oxMkImBkkjyerWo14aLppgo9gj/LIqG/WIMfh1KBVUJGlXeweJsNKKQ1jT7x440HuJD1u924cBCq1K0Fz5faiPZ2EzUaHEhkg5aJt2lH4dwV11aApSHTlHg+Yi55XEEdtKTlBsAAlIcBRLVJuEDU0Jcs1IVrm9jqPHsnwuGMwmYtTIRdSy7VFuJv8A92Ixk90AkmTI72QHxzBVRypDEguz2/q0hSrbJYMcykhkuAUIy2IR85YCqqVNIFnzpk4mZMUVrN1KJJNKO/C0VUVFGc30grHbTUoCXLT2Ut2OVTqVw7RRYcSyQE1gVMtIPhBaniJPPl/3BEnZp1p1p7XMPcBudPWHTJmqHHIUD/2WwicsutC8G+xGrEHKAL8WH7eJZU9fP3L8SYsM3dlUpBmLCUgHKXzrymniyJyov8xhbhhMmqIlS5aglYSVOzO/eINQKVofOOe3JaWjekyLEzilOcu1Gs5Og9dYikLWtIJJ6ae+vrFlweyZZWqXOZapZL5TTTMzpehoYfyMHhpaX7IMAOJ9nh8cXx1RT0Gc+lyFni3L9NOWsF4WTldw5uABc9eGpNyzBrxcto7bw8lLiWklrZeWuaMbFmlcpM3KJXaOoJH4XLGoo4D+cW4z7tDLAVfA4bEZjkQur/Ke84Yv7hv+4uOx9m4hQSJkrKkCjywEu1SSQ37voHeG2sQAFF6sGe7ekOFziqWfKmprf3jpwJ3bkJLEkMynUfv2j1NaHgXjyprh3HqBHiHH/ZjvJmCB09x7xlq1Po0eAodfIRX9sYiar5VhIuxzcvAkhR43hW6MPZ+IQgEqUABckM3tCTFb84OWCVTXALHurp6JNOZpzirYjBBedMssdQSpBTRqoZTtVnbxRz+epYUSCxPdULgi2vEc45c31LxuqBZ1Sf8AFSQM3Zy1rDsCSAkngS/duL0rFex/xdW5CJQQWfiyhVieDskgjiQzRSsNsmdNICUKWRRgCaXbjcn1hvK+HuNWf8lQc3Uya6uS0c/+VN9BUWO8N8UFoExkEIUcyA75XPgJagKE0Ol6xDM+Mc4FY7NKwxylQZTgUzBJZjqK8jWm2D+EGJbvrlpB/qKuVkg6Q0w/wZlnxYgk65ZZ+6vtFIzzPwNoqGP3zkrnLUcNhyhyoJMticp8BIBcqSGzUYl6gNGdor2TNl5kibKmAuBLUFgBSlFIyq+ZIABYgChc2i8p+C+GsZs49EoA9SDBKPg3ghU9ur/Wn7IEVUcj7SNr3ORr2xNIMtau3lSz3UTFlTAFkkHMD/6wPOlS1HtE9ohTUSvLaodKwBmH9wB5mOyzPg5gCHyzfKYX+kUffPcpOESFSjPyAZQlZSvIHzFhRkkmtdYEsc6DSfRzSZMN7/v6Qy2PiA+U1pQGNVqALKBIs40fTiL/AJQGjD98BJI4PegfytE5Q5RpjRxNMaqxImDIE5VqUxL0bVhoeMaysASopCgQkl1AkgJBqQeGg5xAnEVKku+pHAhiRzZ4KXtIS0qlgGqgxVYZXALNXiBpeJqDS0UWPj+SbFzkS0hLdEEB9KqAAJGrHqXomBsPgJ2IUyEKU98oJs3iNh7CG+6eAwyppVie0m1fKkFQVqSsJIW1bhwNXtHd92pkoSkiTLCEWABAbqm482MXhhtWTlp7OU7vfB/ELAVNUmUk8XKhyy0b1i97J+F2DkMVBU5X9amHklLP5kxcgS70PJ/pSN3zMQzdf0iywQ8onYHg9kyZP+VKlo/tSE9KgP7wWSeXvGXehof37Qr2/tv+HlEnKVGiB+ItWj2Aqf1ijSSMrbKn8TZ4QJKQikxalKUkXICQHPFi/EsOEc82ZhSJ6pw/yvCoPVXdY2pelecWTE4uZNSqXOmKmBb5AsJV2SiSM6CauASwNAWazEXY8jLllspRqKCpYu/B6v5xxSSk78HbD7FQNu/KKlLUkBLUb8LklgQbhIEOMdMCJMxaqBIdzoHGsbz9x3cpnTZbkEhBYEigJreKpvhsKZIKQZs1aJndZS1EZg1wSzF38jE1jt9lVkpGcfhZ2Jl5pKAtKgWVmAcVFEkuziDdm7VxUmWhGIQVZGAICVjLoO6cw4W0i37C2KmSgSgosEggGrUALFrEv6mDpmw0K1YcxeG8UhbV7K3K3wkA3ZWocOKubqBFOIhlg98krmAy1JNGZQJ05UAo949N3Kw86k0IN8pBDkv6i+kRS/huEVkrDahR+/2MBJ+ASo6CxbUj98XjwQ1vct9IylKfPqRG4CR+rK/WPTPPIlkjQ9bxjtCad09LxJ2yRZn5ODHlz6WUeoB9xGMB7S2YJqWVnS/zJZ+Ycg6QHgNzMGiolJUripQX7GnsIcJqKD0U3tHhKOreY+4icscJO2g2elSkIGUBKRyGX6UjeWvhUcq/WMZMtSacQfzjKZT1SX6gfUGGVLoBkJY3b/b+kbzJYoS/q/3eMBT3DEcyB9GMYUlXAFPkfajwbQaJDIBFKnqRGUE2f2iFKmspuTH7/aJE883Vh+TxrRqMoW1CfQMPeF+2Z0qQhc+b4UhyaA0sASRc6aluUGqWwJqrlr+X0jiu++/qFy8Th1yU97/LKpgmZFBYUQFIo1CQQaEkVEK5IaMWznm1drrVMmTEpydpMUtkhkgOSnLwAJ9oD2djXmkqLDKrkASCPqYixGKOUJ5vxf8AD5coxNlhMzKCFHiQ1Weg60hUjpZOvHJWSqwRYcXZIf6kQZh8YkIy5szVUdSzskOeBPtAezJUuYS9GdWXvFwK0ABdg5ZtOsaqxCEr7tuIe5HNqPRqRgFy+Ge9icFPCuzdC0kL/EmrjKVUI5ahtY+gdkY5OIliYEsFCjgWNdCa60MfKOz1pKUpWoJJLpNe6HDgkaEW5gR9D/DXeLDqw8vDSpyZipSE5mpe9NRmLPBTJZI+S4JUXYFxYjUetxGVMDqH9CeEaCWc9qc/sfsYzi5TigJI4N9DQwU9EiDa+0UyJC5yywQkm7OQKAHUk0HlHEcBvCvGz5uInLPdAQmnhCiSwGiaeesdj3nnYcYZQxRAQoNYk5rjIA/eDP5Rw/Dol4TGKlmcJ0qewQtDCr0zpuhQdiDRqiJ5LaOjDSsdyMUntPE+VjQddYJ2HvTLlYpUldTMSFJ01II9A7awsXOkJmKTmBYtQpJ10zPFL3xxSTNRNkqqmxFFAg0/SIwXgvPo77JxcuaHQoHpceUJN6cEVYZRZKzLUhaQqjlCgps2jgEecVPdfbU2ehJZfaJAzhIUWU16CjivrFpRMnLlrRMSogp1T50pWJqX3UzcNWiq7F+LslKv5iQEsAzKKhWzhLG9ou2D3pEyWmZLQShfhLLL1a2XiI5zuNu0ELnYpcsZAsplpmpOZN6lJFNL8IvOFxmZ05MmRsocNejBrvDTUVpGgm9k+19tqlIMxSWSxJIlLOUalRAOUDiWtFdG86VFZTtBYSlnZYUA9q0bzh/MxGbuq7wsoEAgixBe4YmNsDs7Ay6Jw6UFTZglIykgfhsbnpEklWmO7XgvSQ1g/wDen7iNshbu5R0JESKlDl7p+kZ7vQ8v1jtc2+jzqIlk/N/xMby5QZ8p9x7PG5B07w8oyEFtAen2eNyZqI0JSa1B5/rErHl9/Zo9mPI9DGktjZ/NjG5M1EgUXv5NGFywzkNzH6RhUt7pB5xsUHQkdf1g7AaoQk6gxhwKsU9Le1IHxG0pCfEtL8mJ9oW4re5CQrs0LmZBXpxqawrajtjKLfQ6UH/Coc/20YQjhmT7j8oqyt7phSCBLlubKv6ux0hf/j2Jm1EwsQfAUhvZ/WJ+vAosMmXibKJDLylBBBcXBpxaPnDffCJk4hQUlMiWCrKlAzUqkBAJZmTe1Y6dOmkgBc5ZVqVOfVqO8cp38nKTiwFgqQUujM9ON9QXtGhkU5UkOovHsrc2clPZFBYM7lnFS9qtSPTkJKO0BJUV1uMo00aMzpaciAxUcpOgF+Rqevu8ayndIKlIT4kgWcFnqeRryi9G5eCaVhkywspJMxLLQsEijhyNCAXgpOw0hJBqSpJbwqyqSVWsB+YgKRhCsk5yyk2SLB6AE0AcWoBB0ydnlJWVAKJylTMEk0sAwDIADDQ6QGn4Zk17EB2ekZ007qyl1M7uaK4py1cWMXDcjY6pJE0qOcjugAUST4kmuaiajgbGKhJnhXZZlEhnY6lJZ3Bqq5APvFjG0FdmlKVujgil/CkUDAs76WuIlkbUQuUUrOnJ2pOPinKo48RH3eI5uKmV/mLIt4z+sVTZ85awKqJHyirWDBgS1qsbQ2SVj/MJQAA1ASWLj5S50YvaOPm2+y0aa0hFtDHkO5JObUktXrD7YqyqSCEgEkuo1o9AacKeUVZSELmLTmzqlqqBSj6nyMWvd6SkShlFc1a0PDpHS37isA2zg0LlntEoIL3APNxSNd39xZISJvZS1qqWU7JBsB8rji0Mpk1KsQEhIOUE5dKWoaaxY8LjErplyn2H7DQrn7DJeRVhEKlAp8DEh3odRRmHDS0TYHFTgsd9JDs5TavL7wTipnZUWldrhKiG6wPI2rIKmUaN8ySAbXpTXrCWivjodTZHaOlacyTrry/YjnO+mMTg5iAmYSleaigMycpT8wvVVODaxf5uIQlC1S1MkizilyphcFm5X1hdsfEYOckTit5hTkPiOUBRJBSzCvrDJXpkVJp2irbE3ilz0EZnmBiU2o4qK1pdoazdt4ZGYTlNkoQk1cnTiLu3KGuO2fhFBlpUTVlBOU3cMoMQ3KES9gYOQpU5OVc3NQzXWauFMJimq4NdQYlNRcH92v7DObfR1pCw+j8i8bZz+E+0QzJiBcoro1Y0LUdISOLkfT84618HCEseP+39Y2yU4+ZgXE42XJQqYVhgKuqg+rQp2hvarsycOhMxbAgZqAFu8wqoa0iih5YCwrASCSpuJJt6wrxe9MhAcHP/AGh/e0UnEbbmzqTiCdAkFh0TrXWNziAAO73joKGo4Hl9YhLMl+lF1h9x3M3vXMByp7Mf1AuejwhmY+atVZicrlhmJ5WBpbWIMStTFyof7m0sdXjIksAwIep7uvSwP5xF5ZyLLHFEqZDkKzBQOgZqEiJJVnDXuDUQFLUlLAivEpBPqP0jeTLWbilTSj6uxteJt32OkkS5ks4OZ+IPHQMOfrEa5iVUy5bMBbgLm9A/SIzLILKUyjo59k/eB1LUCyWAOuZrf0kt6RqHJlpN7kaVA1/b+8c++IM4qmyknKpCU5mAIL5iFBXA8OAPre1zVVLJY3ANDxIqC/nHOd5MUO2VlQH1dy7hLLA0cMGcu0dH06+4jmehNh8aqWvOGqCACAUgkcDQFj+3htsRGHnKUiaUAhKUJJBLqUvvKUQPChLmtT50E7NJ7rEqSblgm7UFWP1bjBmHBZhmb005RbLkjBbOJ5eBIdlYdARlWtf8paZoagUSQlnoU604cTAuM3ekpQpSZye7cuHIKXDJfxVZnFQYKxE2XJS66n8Opb6QnnKXMPdAANWfNWpHIXieLJKW30COWTTtDPCyMNKXLUkmYgGqVuFZqnME+HKQBQ+pgpE3uEZSCFkOQMwcklLi4pqPrCiats4BBBsAKgj9iCMBOJmTHepBNeXHzaNknygzc3KLRb91cRkWQtQSCKB2tx483MOP4lKlkZ0HM4NASRo73cGnERV8PjEy0krKQkJYvWlmZqudImwe1M+VZBSkKo4YLJs1X0uY5IQdWdmF1BB2I2JOlrM2WntM7uAwdwLt0iPZO18RJWf4iSpNCxQCro6Xr5VpaLPs7amYEEubtfRwHJrDGfiUFKcyHdQBSUubs30i/LWxik4XagViHSouQWBCkk2JfMBoIOnYufmNSkNZCiAeoZ/eHn+FyZrPLDMSC5SfMgg29CYjm7ISuY7rfK2UrmMKhz4r9REuisZ0JpW18SAUpWpPkpXU99/pB+G2nmzCbMQ5AYql5WNXdm9o9/4shwVzZpYh0laGN3DhAuwF4zM3blhQAVNRn0HZ6Ct5ZLGlQdYP7jPIq0QbVQtEhSkEKBLEjMEjo6jW40aKruRtSYJk+UlQcEKFi7vmHNmf1i1r3Zw6CUrn4pTuyTMSgaXCQEs3T8h17kYRPeRJWngtExsuhIqlQvzvDco00yTk70S/x8wKOZSrVJf2rYcIrO8+JmBT0UksbKyvx0a5pFzkbBQhKsi5q5hFe1UqakkC5AAYMKkWitbQ2cU5s8xQZb5kpzXFAAe8K5qjz5R1e2Tz/etI7vhJKgKgNoGFtCWAbpG+NxSZSFLUWSkOekbmcBc+gJipb87QExIw4URmGZRDUa1yNQfSPTk+EbOSK5MB2vtpOKJSpXZoy5gnLU81GxpoIreHwUodxKcyM2YVJTmBqQHZNejwQnDoXUDOK3CS9uTwR/BlKmYpBpUHzyhrc44nkb8ncoJGsyaT4XVWt7ezxAZswkAu41zXcWuXDuzDWpgpE1KSO65ajggEmlb+v0jMySR8oPFlD7ly32hLGNFTSqoCgE8iAPYRDOxikpKgFLIpfTqaAxidJPBql2zJq1S7c4jxcycZKJcsgEMCtRbuu5YNdjrSNoxiVtFlA5r0qUB+jljEq8Qoghz0sQ4bXmw4QOjBJABUAxANQRXg6mD9GiJU3vHvhmYJT/1fzNqRgonmyrhSjzBBOV+DFPWpMDInSkEjtA9r1Io+pvR2iP8AiwxSMzm926vYvAa9mghwFNVnJYDiw4dYxrGZ2oCXC0uaDvW1rSnnHONsLWmdOv3lKcij5SQAQPO4uGi2jA+GiGFEhl1NnNa11ivbSwZ7R6u9TTiSlXPvC1bCLYpKL2SzdAWBwxygqASVFzYAB38r2iWZtMAtLAIF1EgcgUvdjwBiHH491ZXCE2KmCjWoLXvcwCucCHcFiwcuXqSQAO6DdoeGHm+c/wCDh9O3yZ7EzczqPiqC5DDQMD3uPrA+GwZXMSgZnN7UL/LwDcecEYiYCAQHHHxEk3zEtroOOsWvdjCpQgTiKgEBmUxcvV2aqiHNASIpmy+lDS/BaEOToTYnduZh+8c4eliczuTaoAGrV5aLtmzVZyXNfEblrm71tFzxW3phds2UihKTlPC6bdHhBJkgz2UKLlqZgACpiRw1ArSOfHOUk+aK+lHdBCcSFV7pI8NK24uMr9D5RPjscqYErPZhKKElgSa1s5rWvKABhTYg9Cc1Ho5tbWkFjZD3UQAGs9KizsGpDfaiqVKh/g8WMmZLFxpR4Y4DeNCiUFRc0qzgngoivL7xUP8ADFBISJikjkPd9HiGbh56UkoZYAqSKtzLU84m4p+TI6WucLGor3iOPTVuPpGXzFiohFimnG7sTahD+l45jh96J0o99KgBSrkVroeHKLTsHeVE9bJXlWB4FA97WnEQHCSNaLdMlIcWAOpLAM5r7V5CJkLSTUhj4SHr/abluWkQSEUe/B2oeHOsDYzGGWjvCtVFkktSzO6qvWFN2Y2rJDFSFMqwLVBtYc2tq0V4zsswFS3WwJJJ8VApkFy5LcL+pWO2gVAEZlKUHy5SEVokKILE1LGwYwLhZbFRUDmJv4m83AAqPS/HGboIViFm4UNBmTlDeQSBxbo+sL5k/K6nVdqKcCvMN5CDV4EqNVHKOQc0uB5UaAJ8kEBCQsqFyDp0TbzhJpNCTTao+hSmKhvwgIVKmEEu6bsxZ3c8s3pFtRMcAjWIMbs9E1JStIVTXTodI9OceUaRyRdOzmXa6pUkhRo5APGoLnhSIErWfEslIOpLEu3GulPyiw7V3fEmhAKTZRF/7qcBT9srnYYgMGISwAoPK1dTHntcXR3RaasjlznqKVvlI4PR66x4JfwFSSfMNxrG8hWcWNWq4SRerE26tEc+WXKe6aVq/Sr0EKUsweKn8xrxo8RLxGaie8eGh4OQGFNOUSYeUHoksBRStNKC/wD3G1S/h4pAJPt11jGQHjMAlaCFjvMHCVGz2J184hTJAJYC+r8OBpZtIZ4ZSSWYvfUE0uXMbTJT0KHf+rhQXP05RrowilYEChBAFatloW0q3KNBKLOVZiXYswtSgejgChhwMKhSkl190sRmbgRoxArfnHp0sAnRy9AVEjQkWOkGw0J04Zfd7pL8706Urx+sa7Q2UpS8xUkLJcDKK3FAA1qaQz/h3OYKykAhy5bSodjX00iWQCQM6knKLt8zUo3nAbA4plKn7hlZdU41SwIRmAPygnM7C3LnAiNw2JzFw/EDRnAFqnV7Rf5rHukJoTZhztc+kQzpCSHD1DByWFagAnWKRzSSoR44lWlboyxcBmFg1RbqadYZyMEhIYFgkhISAzdA3NzB38EpXdLsKjS1nAuHifEbLAYpCzqxDEFqhmtU114Qjd9hUUuhTPwNwGKRoANNbvUwPNwqcoKkUFa10rY8IfqwTkC2YgBsgDuGHhf1u8EYjYmQ5FNUEghi4FLJS44VZ4KZq2V1GFlqao4Fm4O4rwg6Vs4WA82+0FYbZgAISEg3bw+xaJk5uXAsoeT1t6Ugcg0BrwA5cP1qYgQkJCspUyj3hYOzVTbzgnFocFgfNzUg6gWbQRnC4cpTUUeoNfMm49TBYyQkn7vhdUpDeQ/YpC//AMMUFApZKgaKBryb98YvUhaQATXyBb3jYzEPY8OvOBza6A4piLB4jGIZEyWgpBAMxJamroNzrSGM3FLUkvKUeZo/MMXHUNBClpT8rj6UrQgk0iRMkBOcDuu2l26RuTYOKQjThZoADkDm3EG9weYjVOEmpJUHqKinRxQM8PCwNWYi/Q3/AEjRg1b+3l7QDcUV1p9RlS17APW8CbXMybUgy00DI7oJAu9ydYsS8pzOC4D3qejV8hC3GSkkF26qbjSnpGpN2bidkwGJI7ukNQY9Ho9JM85kWJw6VpKVBwYqu8OwciTMSp0prlVpexavn6x6PQcsU42xscmpFdCkAksQwqwBvzNYmU4TnBoOLPHo9Hms7yLtnTmo1T7cI9LzVKWDXpd3j0ehR6NXBUeLOffi8ELlhLCpo4JNdfyj0ejCmFygbkk+lCK8Y2Esy3Y+JNegr61bWPR6MAHloTmNPLSjM3DjEYny1Ly5La04sW9veMx6EY/gIXKBTQOXatOHDlGUyUl+6O7WtfSPR6ChCDEYDOkgKKWqCLgiriNsNKKAMxzG5UAxNCb/AKax6PQzM2ZUkZsmUVqNRX9QYjxGyytQIUAauTV2DlwGj0ejMzYDjZZlt3ip1UJunUNRuFOtYIkpyqAJzANplN+R49Lx6PQz6Cg+VKdRfixalhfUcYjmIAp5cPvwMZj0TD5IpTAAtccAW1cE1eNjISSWHL05R6PQlsZ6ICjKoJASx8m5ANSMiSAQwA6U0/KPR6KxFZ4Sq6enDX3iPswx468PIRiPQQAM5aRmBT4Wf2gVCu8rKA4oSoAv7cI9HoUZn//Z 
 
 http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRB6xvpqPK_bgihb4xOBUzdaeLOQ4yz8Cmy2Jfl_iKJhb_S4Rim
 
Adapun ciri - ciri umum dari ordo Cycadales adalah :
1.Berupa pohon, seperti kelapa sawit dengan pertulangan daun sejajar.
2.Berumah dua, artinya ada tanaman jantan yang menghasilkan strobilus4 jantan dan tanaman betina yang menghasilkan strobilus betina pada tanman yang berbeda.
Anggota ini menghasilkan strobilus yang besar. Meskipun demikian, rata - rata reproduksinya rendah. Dari 15 - 20 strobilus yang dihasilkan tumbuhan Cycas jantan, hanya satu atau dua saja yang siap melepaskan serbuk sarinya. Strobilus jantan ini menghasilkan aroma yang membuat serangga tertarik untuk datang. Setelah datang, serangga tersebut akan memakan strobilus dan berkembang biak. Pada saat yang sama, strobilus betina menghasilkan bau yang dapat mengusir serangga yang datang kepadanya. Setelah beberapa waktu, strobilus betina menghasilkan aroma yang justru menarik serangga yang berasal dari strobilus jantan. Sambil membawa mikrospora dari strobilus jantan, serangga tersebut menuju strobilus betina dan terjadilah polinasi.
 
 
2.Ordo Ginkgoales Divisio Ginkgophyta
Salah satu tumbuhan dalam ordo Ginggoales adalah Ginkgo biloba. Tanaman ini berasal dari Cina. Selain itu, spesies ini tercatat sebagai spesies pohon tertua di dunia. Selama 80 tahun spesies ini belum pernah berubah.

Klasifikasi Ginkgo biloba
 
http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQN3gxTbuLULclQG7uXatAlfRYsIsq83KLf6z9VTk6xF0w6AvNeKingdom                      : Plantae
Divisio                         : Ginkgophyta
Class                            : Ginkgoopsida
Ordo                            : Ginkgoales
Family                          : Ginkgoaceae
Genus                           : Ginkgo
Spesies                         : Ginkgo biloba
 
 
 
http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTg24NzqCjtAAPh2_R4yhYRXrK094z_R71Xb06IhUizuI-Oa4UU      

http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcR4OwrxrqzbFUw17IqLG-hbWj0Fl8Vr9bNUfrtxo2PkEow8LncL0A 
 
Ciri khas tanaman ini adalah mempunyai daun yang berbentuk seperti kapas dengan lebar 5 sampai 10 sentimeter dan tinggi batang mencapai 30 meter. Selain itu, daunnya juga ada yang berbentuk mirip daun paku kelompok suplir.
Manfaat dan kegunaan Ginkgo biloba :
Berfungsi sebagai antioksidan untuk menekan radikal bebas
Untuk meremajakan
  sel-sel otak yaitu dengan cara memulihkan reseptor-reseptor di dalam otak serta meningkatkan serotonin
Mempunyai kemampuan untukØ memperbaiki peredaran darah
Dapat memacu produksi molekul energi ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
Ketika musim penyerbukan tiba, tanaman ini mengeluarkan bau yang kurang sedap dan dijauhi oleh manusia. Peluang agribisnis tannaman ini adalah di manfaatkan sebagai peneduh atau sebagai tanaman hias. Selain itu, tanaman ini juga di percaya sebagai tanaman obat Bronkhitis dan asma sejak 5000 tahun lalu di Cina.
 

3.Ordo Coniferales Divisio Pinophyta
Tumbuhan yang termasuk ordo Coniferales adalah pinus atau tusam (Pinus merkusii), damar (Agathis alba), dan cemara (Araucaria cunning hamii).
 
http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcR0Dtcm2oGrZSy7PdtuhRMKBpxqGjWEQAdsuO1Fh9yx-CNdVixd    ( pinus )

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  ( damar )

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  ( cemara )

Klasifikasi Pinus
 
Divisi                            : Coniferophyta
Kelas                           : Pinopsida
Bangsa                         : Pinales
Suku                            : Pinacea
Marga                          : Pinus
Jenis                             : Pinus montezumae Lambert.
Adapun ciri umum ordo Coniferales adalah tanaman berupa pohon, daun berbentuk jarum, serta ada yang berumah satu dan berumah dua. Pohon pinus dan cemara banyak hidup di Eropa bagian pegunungan. Di Eropa tanaman pinus dan cemara disebut evergreen, artinya daunnya tetap hijau sepanjang masa. Tumbuhan dari ordo ini banyak dimanfaatkan oleh manusia. Misalnya, batang pinus digunakan untuk bahan industri kertas dan korek api. Sedangkan damar digunakan untuk minyak terpentin dan obat - obatan. Selain itu, cemara juga dapat digunakan sebagai tanaman hias. Manfaat dan kegunaan tanaman tersebut merupakan peluang dalam agribisnis.

4.Ordo Gnetales Divisio Gnetophyta
Tumbuhan yang cukup dikenal dari ordo ini adalah melinjo atau tangkil7 (Gnetum gnemon). Melinjo banyak digunakan oleh orang Indonesia untuk sayur - sayuran dan emping.

Klasifikasi ilmiah Gnetum gnemon (Melinjo)
http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSNutpst_BH9vAHYNnTjnQg-YxLYvZFlZmNLdRdZ41A6ZnxGqw8JQKerajaan                                  : Plantae
Divisi                                        : Gnetophyta
Kelas                                       : Gnetopsida
Ordo                                        : Gnetales
Famili                                       : Gnetaceae
Genus                                       : Gnetum
Spesies                                     : Gnetum gnemon
 
 
 
 
http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcR7GWwaGHnfPpJWAa1kjByWZ56an4wvwlR8XxP1HKnKiec1_DZpNQ 

http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTp6StNnjhNuWA91Kr3BU-bnNB_DSDfLkpQLGLOVBs1wfzMJD17Yw 

Anggota lainnya adalah Ephedra sp. dan Welwitschia sp. Genus Ephedra atau yang di kenal dengan nama ”Mormon tea” atau ”Ma Huang” mengandung zat ephedrin dan pseudo-ephedrin. Zat ini jika di minum dalam dosis rendah digunakan sebagai obat demam. Zat ini dapat pula mengemulsikan sistem syaraf pusat sehingga tidak jarang digunakan sebagai narkoba yang dikenal dengan herbal ectacy. Ephedra tumbuh di seluruh gurun di dunia.
Berbeda dengan Ephedra yang tumbuh di seluruh gurun dunia, Welwitschia hanya tumbuh di gurun Afrika. Pertumbuhan tumbuhan dengan daun berupa helai - helai yang besar dan panjang mirip gurita ini cukup lambat. Kebutuhan airnya sebagian besar dipenuhi melalui kabut.
Adapun ciri - ciri umum ordo Gnetales antara lain tanaman berupa pohon, daun lebar, dan mempunyai pertulangan menyirip bentuk daun buah melingkar atau berkarang, serta ada yang berumah satu dan berumah dua.

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